Free Typesetting Software for the Professional
Document Preparation
Writing Scientific Literature, Word Processing, Book Creation, Graphical Desktop Publishing,
Web PDF Documents, and E-Book-Typesetting
Specialists guarantee optimum End Products

Typesetting programs offer an extremely wide range of design options, the effective use of which requires a longer familiarization period. Long-term stable free software proves to be advantageous here, since changes to operating and functional concepts occur within the framework of natural development, in contrast to proprietary software, in which a continuous purchase of new products and operating manuals is often artificially forced. (Operating system) platform independence as well as the mastering of a truly open document format suitable for archiving are further central criteria, in particular for the use in heterogeneous company computer networks and in the administration area. High-quality typesetting is even possible with old and very old computers thanks to specialized lightweight free operating systems and software.

This overview introduces you to widely used, free typesetting systems and basic document types. Extensive link lists lead to further, also powerful free program alternatives.

To ensure the technical and content integrity of your document, it is advisable to be familiar with the practical application of cryptographic checksums (electronic fingerprints). Use freely accessible language resources. Keep your readers up to date on news about your article or book with RSS news tickers.


Table of Contents


Introduction
Source and license: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Oxygen480-apps-fontforge.svg/500px-Oxygen480-apps-fontforge.svg.png

The choice of the appropriate type­set­ting system depends on your desired end product. Do you predominantly want to create letters, articles and forms? Do you intend to write articles, a clas­sic book or non-fiction book as well as scientific documents? Or are graphi­cal­ly accentuated typesetting documents the focus of your interest, such as richly illustrated magazines, il­lus­trat­ed books, calendars, posters, greeting cards and post­cards?

Today's typesetting programs are incredibly powerful and universally applicable. You can create letters, ar­ti­cles (including formulas), forms, tables, flyers, posters, postcards, newspapers and even huge book projects with a single word processor. Many authors write and typeset their books with a classic word processor, and the final products have an appealing professional qual­ity. In addition to fillable, interactive PDF documents, it is even possible to design simply designed, illustrated web pages (HTML documents) for uploading to Internet serv­ers via ((S)FTP); and even a single, PDF-exported, illus-

trated document can combine the functionality of a large-size web page if it is richly linked with internal and external hyperlinks; the web pages then open separately in the browser, in “tabs”. Alternatively, you can create texts with your favorite word processor or with a text editor, and then import them into another typesetting system, e.g. Scribus; Text import and export functions are nowadays standard functions.

Due to its wide range of functions, word processing is some­times referred to as a “super typewriter”. Specialized type­set­ting systems, on the other hand, concentrate on cer­tain types of documents; they offer additional pos­sibil­ities for typographical finesse, which are usually not avail­able in word processing.

Learning the basic functionality of a free word processor, the most universal typesetting program type, is a worth­while time investment that will pay off all your life.

The program recommendations here are divided into four sections, although the subdivisions and designations are ar­bi­trary in various respects:

Further references to basic technical terms can be found at the end of each section. A basic understanding

of how the style sheet (or template) works is essential for professional work with typesetting systems:


1 The Design with Templates or Style Files

You're working on a larger article or book and you've de­cid­ed to set chapter headings, section headings, and sub­sec­tion headings in a specific color, font size, and font. In the middle of your project, or towards the end, how­ever, you discard your original design and choose a different font size and font.

Without style sheets, you would have to laboriously go to each chapter heading, each section heading, and each sub-section heading and reformat them in­di­vid­ual­ly.

Style sheets work according to a more sensible prin­ci­ple: the properties (size, font, etc.) of each basic article or book design element (chapter heading, section head-

ing, subsection heading, etc.) are defined in a sepa­rate file, the style sheet. You can use predefined style files as well as your own templates.

Without style sheets, you can always see directly what the final result will look like. This working principle is also called the “What you see is what you mean”-​principle (WYSIWYM), and is only suitable for shorter letters and docu­ments.

For your section headings, for example, you have opted for a 12 pt serif font in black. Each time you now write another section heading, you must select it and format it again with the same properties. The result will look like this:

If you work with style sheets instead, you no longer need to laboriously format each individual text element (appearance of the section heading, etc.), you no longer need to manually number the sections. You only have to select the corresponding general outline element from a menu or even faster and more effectively: you use the

corresponding key combinations. The principle of selecting outline elements or layers and text elements in this way is also called the “What you see is what you mean” principle (WYSIWYM).

Schematically represented, your typesetting system then reads the following input internally:



Your typesetting program can see how to format the individual structure and text elements from the style sheet file. The advantage is obvious: All settings can be made centrally via a formatting file. The numbering of the outline levels is taken over fully automatically for you. If you delete individual sections, references, etc., your program will renumber and re-reference them for you. If you refer to individual text sections, then set markers beforehand, with self-selected designations. You do not write "See Section 2.4.3 on page 57" because the section numbering as well as the page number can change in the course of the design, which would also render your referencing obsolete. Instead, write, as shown schematically, “See <self-chosen

marker designation>.” Your typesetting system then auto­mat­ical­ly adds “section”, the concrete section numbering, “on page”, and the concretely calculated page number.

With WYSIWYM systems such as LyX, you have a text input window in which the individual structuring elements such as sections, sub-sections, etc. are displayed clearly distinguishable from each other for input (use of different font sizes and strengths, all freely adjustable according to personal preferences). However, the final output of the actual document only takes place at the press of a button or mouse click.


A document created with LyX, together with the PDF output
A document created with LyX, along with the PDF output
(click on it for detailed view)

Virtually every typesetting system includes pre-installed style sheets that you can use and customize to suit your personal style preferences; many more pre-defined style sheets are freely available and free on the World Wide Web, including style sheets for creating books. When designing websites, the style files that define text and typography are called CSS files, referring to the underlying stylesheet language CSS (Cascading Style Sheets): The text itself and the structure are written into the HTML file, the text element design definitions are in the CSS file.

All functions of the programs presented here can be selected via graphical menus. For effective operation,

however, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with at least some of the associated key combinations from the outset. Shortcuts are sometimes displayed directly in the graphical menus. You can also create your own keyboard shortcuts. Example search queries for corresponding lists:

The search entry LibreOffice Short­cuts leads to, among other things: “Shortcut Keys for LibreOffice Writer”, “General Shortcut Keys in LibreOffice”, to “Shortcut Keys for Spreadsheets”, “How to create your own shortcut with special keys?”, “Keyboard”, and to “Customize”.


2 Universal Word Processing with LibreOffice
Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oxygen480-categories-applications-office.svg
     Original image source: http://websvn.kde.org/trunk/kdesupport/oxygen-icons/scalable/categories/applications-office.svgz?view=log,
     License: http://websvn.kde.org/trunk/kdesupport/oxygen-icons/COPYING?view=markup

With a powerful range of functions and a worldwide user resp. support community, organized in the Do­cu­ment Foun­dation (WP article), including states and according to a (German) Heise message also the company Intel, LibreOffice offers all the prerequisites to meet professional requirements. Even DTP functions are possible. For details see the “LibreOffice Writer Features” page.

LibreOffice's user interface is available in dozens of languages and dialects, to a comparable extent as the free software Abiword (WP article) supports languages (list of Abiword user interface languages).

Further information on the Open Document Format and on free word processing programs: “Open​Docu­ment Format Alliance”, “What is Open­Do­cu­ment?”, “Open­Do­cu­ment facts”, “We Can Put an End to Word Attachments”, “Catego­ry:Free word pro­ces­sors”.

LibreOffice is subject to ongoing maintenance, further development and functional expansion, including operating concepts. Software and operating concept changes, however, take place on a natural development basis; in contrast to artificial, forced changes to programs and formats of some other manufacturers, for the purpose of the forced continuous purchase of new programs and operating manuals, whereby a part of the acquired knowledge becomes unnecessarily obsolete prematurely.

Countless reader-friendly and appealingly designed books prove that nowadays you can also create high-quality, professional books with word processing programs. However, the use of some typesetting subtleties is reserved for specialized typesetting and DTP software such as LyX and Scri­bus.

Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crystal_Project_kview.png,
     Original image source: http://everaldo.com/crystal/?action=downloads,
     License: http://everaldo.com/crystal/?action=license

The training in LibreOffice is a valuable investment that pays off in the long term and is recommended to pupils, trainees, students, merchants, scientists, civil servants and people from all professional and interest groups. LibreOffice, with its many DTP functions, is also a powerful tool for book authors to implement their works.

Find out more about other free alternatives, for example the office application Cal­ligra Suite with its word processor “Words”, or about Abi­word (WP-​article): Official site • AbiWord High­lights • AbiWord Plugins (detailed page) • AbiWord: Reviews.

Libre­Office Writer Documentation and Help Pages

Background information on the history of OpenOffice and the differences to OpenOffice.org can be found in the official questions- and answers section. The help pages for LibreOffice Writer contain extensive information; use the search function in the upper bar. “Getting Support” describes the possibilities of direct help by contact persons (mailing lists, forum). The section The section “Get Help” is a starting point to get general overviews and information about the use of LibreOffice in various areas of application. The official documentation contains the “Libre Office Writer Guide”.

A list of free extensions for Libre­Office and for Open­Office informs about functional extensions. Search: LibreOffice Writer introduction • video search: LibreOffice introduction

Read essential articles on the subject of word processing: WP article “Word pro­cessor” • “Cat­ego­ry:Free word processors” • “Category:Word processors” • “List of word processors” • “Com­pari­son of word processors” • “Com­pari­son of office suites” • “OpenDocument software”


3 Classical Typesetting in Highest Quality for Writers and Scientists: TeX, LaTeX, LyX

TeX [tεχ] and the macro system LaTeX form the most widely used typesetting system in mathematics, physics and computer science as well as in numerous other disciplines. “The Beauty of LATEX” informs about its advantages. PDF example documents can be found at the the “TeX User Group” and in a compilaton by the Association of American University Presses, presented on tsengbooks.com

For the majority of computer users, it might be unusual to create documents with a text editor and macro commands. With the cross-platform LyX graphical interface, LaTeX is as easy to use as a word processor and includes a graphical formula editor. Of course, you can also mix the modes and enter LaTeX code directly at any point of your LyX document.

Text processing and graphical DTP programs are mainly based on the WYSIWYG principle, while LaTeX and LyX are based on the markup language principle (see also (“Page description language”). The formatting of text areas, headings and other structuring elements is done indirectly (WYSIWYM). Meanwhile, word processing programs enable a comparable functionality via so-called style sheets. However, the typesetting quality of Tex or LaTeX and LyX remains unmatched, because TeX uses paragraph optimization criteria or procedures (algorithms) that are not included in word processing programs, and because the typesetting and professional-group specific subtleties and extensions are incomparably comprehensive, comprising thousands of classes, packages and package bundles.

It is best to install the complete TeX base before installing LyX. The LyX installation program already contains a TeX base system. However, if you install the complete TeX distribution with all packages beforehand, there is no need to reload individual packages later.

Free-​BSD-, Desktop-​BSD-, TrueOS- and GNU/Linux users install the base system TeX, (and sub­se­quent­ly LyX) via their package management system. MacOS users can get the MacTeX distribution from their own subpage on tug.org. MacTeX di­stri­bu­ti­on from their on subpage on tug.org.

Instructions for MS-Win­dows users:


  1. Get the MikTeX distribution first. For example, it is recommended to download the the original MikTeX-distribution on miktex.org, or ProTeXt
  2. Now install MikTeX. Decide for the complete variant, for the installation of all packages.
  3. Then go to www.lyx.org, download the LyX installer and start the installation. LyX will either automatically detect the path of the MikTeX software already installed, or ask for it.
  4. Familiarize yourself with LyX. As document class KOMAScript, “article (KOMA-Script)” and “book (KOMA-Script)” are recommended, together with “Latin Modern fonts” as standard character set. Find your favorite fonts in the LaTeX Font Catalogue. Thousands of packages offer comprehensive possibilities for numerous professions and areas of application; you can also develop your own templates, and all typographic subtleties are possible.


Text written in Calligra Calligraphy for LaTeX: Calligra Kalligraphie.

Calligraphy fonts, Fraktur fonts, Sütterlin and numerous other fonts and styles can be used universally, e.g. as artistically designed titles for websites, book covers, film and music albums, posters, greeting and gift cards. The openness of the TeX- and LaTeX-Basis enabled a momentum of its own, beauty, functionality and expressiveness, to which countless nations, professional groups and private individuals all over the world continuously contribute. Donald Knuth’s TeX interpreter is one of the most powerful computer typesetting systems and is also the most archiving-secure and durable that has ever been created. Its cultural significance is rightly equated with Gutenberg's invention of printing – free software emphasizing the beauty and freedom of individuals and nations, descriptive linguistics, and educational equality.

The following list contains various search queries for typesetting examples of various professions, for which there are often several packages available (no claim to completeness, only a tiny excerpt overall); browse through the respective documentation to see examples, and also switch to the image category of your search engine service. Many official documentations are also available in other languages, and there are numerous freely available third-party guides:


4 Graphic Desktop Publishing with Scribus: Newspapers, Magazines, Books, Pictorials, Posters, Cards

Scribus is particularly suitable for creating mainly graphic DTP products, such as newspapers and magazines, books and non-fiction books, including those with a trendy design, for picture and photo volumes, book covers, calendars, catalogues, advertising leaflets and brochures, billboards, posters, cards and postcards. Comprehensive information is available on the official

web site, scribus.net, and in the Scribus Wiki, http://wiki.scribus.net. Illustrative example projects can be found under “Made with Scribus” and “Success Stories” (all success stories from 2003 to 2017 can be selected on the right).

Inform yourself: Google search: Scribus • Scribus introduction • Scribus tutorial • Scribus examples.



5 The Creation of E-Books
Basic Knowledge for the Creation of E-Books
grayscale converted image version.
     Image source of the image file in color: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kjots.svg,
     Project site: http://www.kde.org/applications/utilities/kjots/

An e-book is a chapter- or content-structured document file that can be read on handy, specialized e-book readers as well as on ordinary computers. The big advantage of e-books lies in their adaptability. With ordinary documents, such as PDF files, the document dimensions and the positioning of the content are geometrically exact and rigid: DIN A4, US-letter, A3, B5 etc. E-books, on the other hand, adapt dynamically to the screen size of the existing output device, the text is displayed fluently, it is rearranged.

How much text appears on the monitor of a display device depends on the user's settings, e.g. the font size set. E-books therefore do not have page numbers, but bookmarks can be set, and some devices also allow quasi-page numbers to be generated. E-books can be provided with copy protection, which not only makes it impossible to make a backup copy, but also excludes printing on paper.

The technical markup language elements used to create e-book texts are essentially based on the same elements used to create Internet pages (HTML).

The e-book format EPUB is the open standard for writers and scientists. E-books created with it can be converted into other formats. However, copy-protected e-books cannot be converted, and probably the majority of e-book titles currently on the market, including .epub files, are copy-protected.

Mathematical typesetting: The current e-book specification is only conditionally suitable for writing extensive mathematical texts. Since EPUB 3, math fonts can be set natively in the markup language MathML and the graphics format SVG, is supported, so that there is no need anymore to integrate formulas and equations as graphics files, or to convert vector graphics (or function graphics) into raster images, if the target device supports Epub 3. However, mathematical typesetting with MathML is not as easy and elegant to create as with TeX or LaTeX, the required markup text for describing formulas is much more extensive.

Mozilla's “MathML Tor­ture Test” page contrasts TeX typesetting with MathML (“As rendered by your browser”), where the TeX typeface is embedded as a screenshot only, thus naturally less brilliant than in PDF,

PostScript, or DVI format, and cannot be scaled as an image when resized. Go to this page and view the markup text file, open the page source in Firefox with CTRL + U to see how complicated it is to type with MathML. Apart from that, Firefox is probably the only browser to date (2019) that can correctly and completely display MathML, including this test.

Most authors set their math texts with LaTeX and probably convert them to MathML as needed using a program such as MathToWeb to insert the appropriate sections into their e-book (EPUB3) or HTML files, although there may not be a significant distribution of MathML.

PDF versus E-Books: PDF files are often referred to as e-books if they have true e-book functionality, such as a referencing table of contents and an index that allows you to jump directly to a specific section of the book, and external hyperlinks that open your web page reader in the background to load Internet pages when you click on them. However, the text of PDF files is not flexible, it does not flow and cannot be dynamically wrapped or rearranged. PDF documents therefore lack the ability to dynamically resize to the given display device, they do not have a dynamic line break. The font can be enlarged, but the document is only enlarged like with a magnifying glass, the text does not rearrange itself, it remains rigid.

Apart from that, however, all the essential e-book functions are also possible with PDF: internal and external references (hyperlinks), reference-sensitive tables of contents and keyword indexes, search functions, etc. In addition, the PDF format enables the best possible print quality.

Further information:: Criticism of proprietary e-book formats, digital rights management and copy protection mechanisms: DefectivebyDesign.org, criticism on Stallman.org. DefectivebyDesign.org, criticism on Stallman.org.

WP-​articles: “E-book”, “EPUB”, “Category:E-books”, “Comparison of e-book formats”, “Cat­ego­ry:​De­di­cat­ed e-book devices”.

Since the EPUB 3 specification, e-books can also contain video films and audio files as well as interactive functions (via Javascript). The possibilities for an e-book have become so extensive that it is sometimes referred to as a “website in a box”. Literature recommendation for the introduction to EPUB3: “EPUB 3 Best Practices[,] Optimize Your Digital Books”, Matt Garrish, Markus Gylling; O'Reilly.



Production: E-Book Editors and Quality Control

Creating e-books requires minimal typesetting skills, the technical aspects have been dramatically simplified, with the exception of book title page design, which remains as challenging from a design point of view as classic books.

Texts and books in .epub format can either be written directly using an editor in .epub format, in the pure markup language, or they can be written using a specialized graphical Epub editor, which makes them as easy to create as using a word processor. Sigil is recommended as a powerful, free e-book editor with a graphical interface, alongside the free e-book editor Calligra Author; search query for further information: Calligra Author epub.

Also existing word processing files can be converted directly into an EPUB file, for example with the LibreOffice extension Writer2epub or with Calibre.

EpubCheck, a syntax check, is recommended for quality control. There is no getting around Epub file validation, especially because some e-book reader models may be less error-tolerant than web browsers. For example,

there was already a model not mentioned here by name that aborts the display of the contents of a subfile (e.g. a chapter unit) as soon as a syntax error occurs or is read, i.e. the remaining text is no longer displayed.

Also the scaling (resizing) of certain image files for display on e-book readers may not work as desired. It makes sense to use a slightly larger image file with resolution reserves, since users of high-resolution readers will then be able to view the images in better quality; the image dimensions displayed can be specified both pixel-precisely and as a percentage of the screen width. However, once a certain file size has been exceeded, the illustration may no longer be displayed on some readers and a gap may appear, so that in the end the only solution is to downsample the file to a lower resolution.

Both of the errors listed as examples did not occur with software e-book readers. However, they may even occur with multiple hardware e-book readers. Before publishing, an illustrated book should be viewed on e-book readers from various manufacturers.


E-​Book ​Reading ­ and Management Programs
Epub Extensions for Mo­zil­la Fire­fox and Chrome

There are several EPUB-reading-extensions for Firefox, including the Freeware EPUB­Reader. Excerpt from the official description of the official website, epubread.com (July 12, 2019): “[...] EPUBReader is a Firefox addon which lets you read ePub-files just in the browser. You don't need to install additional software!
  If you click on a link to an ePub-file, you are normally prompted by the Firefox 'save as' dialog. With EPUBReader installed, the ePub-file is downloaded, processed and directly displayed ready to read.
  It runs on every operating system Firefox does (Windows, MacOS X, Linux) and is already used by more than 350,000 daily users.
  EPUBReader is available in 26 different languages: Catalan, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Simplified Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Traditional Chinese, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese. [...]”.

The manual and the “Frequently asked questions”-section contain detailed descriptions.

For the browser Chrome and its free variant Chromium the free (Open Source), EPUB3-capable e-book reader

Readium is offered. Instructions: official site readium.​org, Readium in the Chrome Web Store, on Youtube “Using the Readium Plugin for Chrome to Read EPUB and MOBI eBooks”.

The separation of words and syllables in e-books has not yet been satisfactorily resolved. In the past, many e-book readers (both hardware readers and reading programs) did not have hyphenation, which resulted in unattractive spaces in block typesetting. Some devices and programs circumvented the problem by formatting the text left-aligned (flatter typesetting), or book authors left-aligned the text from the outset. Some devices either ignored hyphenation aids contained in the text or did not work properly; EPUBReader has been considering such hyphenation aids for many years.

Meanwhile, progress has been made in word and syllable hyphenation.

Cal­li­bre: Universal E-Book Management Program

Callibre (WP-article) contains extensive functions for the administration and conversion of e-books and is also suitable as a reading program.



6 Free Text Editors and Recommended Reading on LaTeX, KOMA-Script & Co.

Text editors are the ancestors of typesetting and word processing programs. Nowadays they are mainly used in the scientific environment (mainly in computer science and pro­gram­ming), in IT-administration as well as in markup language-based typesetting, for example for LaTeX, HTML and CSS (for the conceptual delimitation read also the WP-article “Markup Language”).

The possibilities for editing and evaluating the text are great. In the Unix-world, Vim (cross-platform) and Emacs (or Xemacs) are probably the most popular editors. Besides Vim, Emacs and Xemacs Notepad++ is a free editor for the Windows-world. Read the WP-article Text editor, to inform yourself about basic functionalities and get overviews on free text editors.

Besides the graphical desktop environments and application programs, GNU/​Linux-​distributions also contain text mode software. by default. Programs with text-based user interface are extremly powerful. Their huge number of application programs forms a universe of its own. Their use gives you a high degree of system independence, as numerous applications have been ported and maintained on a wide variety of operating

system platforms. Due to their low resource requirements, text mode programs still run high performance on old and very old computer platforms, both locally and via remote access to other computer systems. More detailed information can be found in the WP-articles “telnet” (historical), “secure shell”, and “OpenSSH”. The text mode offers you the greatest possible information technology (device) independence, freedom and efficiency, very often also when using graphic-based programs, as the introductory example of “Put Yourself in Command” shows.

Web pages and recommended articles on text mode programs: WP-articles: “Con­sole app­li­ca­tion”“Text-based (compu­ting)”“Text-based user interface” • “Shell (com­pu­ting)”“Command-line interface”“GNU Core Utilities”. An excellent introduction: Floss Ma­nu­al “In­tro­duc­tion to the Com­mand Line” • WP-article: “GNU Screen”“Ter­mi­nal (Com­pu­ter)” • a German website containing a huge list of links to English websites and resources. “automatisch.cc :: freie Text­mode-Soft­ware” [free textmode software], its link list: “Web­sei­ten zum The­ma Text­mode” [websites on the theme text mode].


Literature Recommendations on LaTeX, KOMA-Script and PS-Tricks

The text mode represents the natural communication with computer programs and allows access to all their functions. Probably the majority of mathematicians, physicists and computer scientists prefer text input via macros macros over graphical formula editors (conventions). Also scientific illustrations are in most cases easier to create using LaTeX- or PostScript-​macros than using a mouse-based graphics program, thanks to the huge number of packages that are specialized in the requirements of different professions and scientific disciplines (although there are also graphic editors with tpx and LaTeXDraw etc).

The list of freely accessible LaTeX introductions is huge, as search queries for numerous languages show, here for example in English: LaTeX intro­duc­tion • creating drawings and graphics with LaTeX • drawing graphics with LaTeX • PSTricks introduction. Probably most packages and package bundles already contain an excellent documentation, and also in the internet very good overall introductions are freely accessible.

High-quality printed literature is recommended both as a detailed introduction and as a comprehensive reference work.

Herbert Voß' (interview in English) offers excellent, in-depth introductions to LaTeX, his books are available in German, some titles are also available in English. However, the German editions are the most recent. “Ein­füh­rung in LaTeX [,] un­ter Be­rück­sich­ti­gung von pdfLaTeX, XLaTeX und Lua­La­TeX” The book introduces all essential areas and aspects of typesetting with LaTeX in depth. This standard work is not only suitable for beginners. Due to its detailed overviews, tables and references, it is also a reference work for experienced users and thus remains a long-term worthwhile investment.

Two more of Voss' standard works, which are of central importance for mathematicians in particular, go into great depth and contain numerous subtleties and ramifications: “Ma­the­ma­tik­satz mit LaTeX” and “PSTricks [,] Gra­fik mit Post­Script für TeX und LaTeX”. The official PS-Tricks-​website (English) contains numerous illustrations and application examples. PSTricks is not only relevant for the scientific creation of functions and graphics, but also for the classical typesetting of formulas; read the table of contents on the Internet, look for the title in the (online) directories of libraries, or go to a scientific bookshop to look at the book in leisure.



LaTeX file in Kate and its PDF-output.
Macro typesetting with LaTeX and KOMA-Script, file opened in editor Kate, PDF-view with Evince (click on it for details). The introduction to indirect mathematical reasoning (PDF A4, PDF US-Letter) contains information on the common mathematical proof notation as well as concrete typesetting information on quantity notation, in footnote 13 on page 5. All formats are available on the title page.

Read Utroff.org to keep up to date with the latest Troff news and information.

Suche: Gnu Groff example documents




7 Free Fonts and an Introduction to Basic Concepts of Typography

The “Libertine Open Font Project” offers high-quality font files (character sets) for MS-Windows and GNU/Linux, among them the Linux Libertine, which also contains the capital ẞ (WP-article), and the Li­nux Biolinum, which can even be used to depict keys for the description of keyboard shortcuts (WP-article on the Linux Libertine).

Self-description on the title page, July 21, 2016, “LinuxLibertine.org – About us”, by Philipp H. Poll: “Glyphs and fonts are basic elements of our com­mu­ni­ca­tion and fundamental to our culture. But on the other hand they are also software products and consumer items, which are commonly copyrighted and are intellectual property of large American corporations.

While in former times one used to write his letters by one’s own hand, we nowadays com­mu­ni­cate digitally and thus require fonts for displaying of what we want to read or tell. But you will find copyrights and patents even on the most elementary fonts and often there is no support for minority languages or scientific special characters. We thus founded this project to provide you with high quality libre fonts, which can be supplemented and kept up to date by the public community.

An older excerpt from a section of the start site of the Open Font Project, as of July 27, 2011: “[...] It is our aim to support the many western languages and provide many special characters. Our fonts cover the codepages of Western Latin, Greek, Cyrillic (with their specific enhancements), Hebrew, IPA and many more. Furthermore, typographical features such as ligatures, small capitals, different number styles, scientific symbols, etc. are implemented in this font. Linux Libertine thus contains more than 2000 characters. In this huge amount of glyphs, there still may be small mistakes that we ask you to report for the improvement of the Libertine Font Family. You may also write us, if you would like to see a new feature added (see the section “Contribute” for details). [...]”

Study the easy-to-understand information of the Libertine Open Font Project to acquire the most elementary basic knowledge of typography: “Open Type” • “Specialties” • “Styles”.

Inform yourself about other free fonts and basic terms: “Category:Open-source type­faces” • “Category:Writing systems” • “Category:Typefaces”

Nations/countries/regions and their prevailing paper format: “Paper Types” • “Paper Size”


8 Free Software for the Creation of professional PDF-Documents,
Free PDF-Viewers
PDF-Symbol von pdfreaders.org.
      Image source and license for this PDF-symbol: http://pdfreaders.org/graphics.de.html

PDF (Por­table Do­cu­ment For­mat) and Post­Script (GS-View-Be­trach­ter) form the document standard in prepress. Books and magazines are mainly handed over to printers as PDF files.

Moreover, PDF serves as the standard format for letters, forms, invoices and other documents sent by e-mail in business, administration and science.

Its advantages lie in its platform independence. In the past, the viewing of a document by the recipient often required the software with which it was created (e.g. a certain word processing program), but today you only need a PDF viewer.

Besides the proprietary freeware Adobe Reader, there is a comprehensive set of free PDF-viewers listed at pdfreaders.org (comprehensive list), including the following programs also available for MS-Windows:

Oku­lar (WP-article) is one of the most powerful free PDF-viewers. It can also be used to annotate PDF documents and can handle numerous other formats, including Post­script, EPUB, and Open­Do­cu­ment. MS-Windows-user can obtain the software via KDE on Win­dows.

Sumatra PDF WP-article is an excellent lightweight PDF viewer for MS Windows. It is also suitable for older hardware and supports other document formats, including the epub format. Quickstart Manual Official manual.

Evince (WP-article) is another free PDF viewer for the MS Windows world, developed from the GNOME-desktop-project for GNU/Linux.


Creating PDF-Files
Image source and license: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oxygen480-apps-acroread.svg

Many free programs have PDF export functions as standard. In addition, many offer the option of ISO-normed PDF/A-ex­port export to create PDF documents suitable for long-term archiving.

PDF-export under Libre­Office (word processing): “File” → “Export as PDF...”. Detailed official information: “Export as PDF”.

Under LyX (typesetting program): “File” → “Export” → “PDF (pdflatex)”. Further PDF-export variants are possible. Official LyX-FAQ on PDF.

Under Scribus (typesetting program): “File” → “Export” → “Save as PDF...”.

Scri­bus- and Scri­bus-Wiki-information: “Help:Ma­nu­al PDFx3”, “Ca­te­go­ry:PDF”.

PDF-creation with Abiword (word processor) under MS-Windows requires a PDF printer driver (“Faq­Creating­PDFs”):

PDFCreator

The universal, powerful PDFCreator (freeware, (WP-article) ) is suitable as a PDF converter. It can also be used to create long-term archivable PDF/A files (“Features”). Video films on PDFCreator.

According to the section “Adware toolbar controversy” of the English WP-article “PDFCreator” there was a controversy regarding the bundling of the software with an adware toolbar. Originally it might have been sufficient to prevent the installation of a toolbar by deactivating a preset option during the installation process, or to remove the toolbar from the browser afterwards.

Other PDF printer drivers are also available: List of virtual printer software • List of PDF software.


Split PDF Files, merge, edit Metadata

The PDF Tool­kit, pdftk, enables comprehensive editing of PDF files and PDF metadata. Detailed instructions and examples in German are freely available, e.g.: “PDFtk Server Examples” • “How To Ma­nipu­late PDFs with PDF Chain [Linux]” • “pdftk(1) - Linux man page”. PDFTK Builder is a graphical inter­face to pdftk, others are listed in the WP-article “PDFtk”.

A Python-based PDF-editor: PDF-Shuffler.


Check hyperlinks of PDF files for functionality

In the past, the Firefox add-on "Linkchecker" was very useful for checking the hyperlinks of a PDF file. All you had to do was open the PDF document (or drag it into a browser tab) and select the link check function, the program marked valid links with green, broken links with red and other links with yellow.

Unfortunately it doesn't work anymore since the “Quantum”-Firefox-​version. Maybe there are alternatives that follow a similar principle. The website alternativeTo, Crowdsourced soft­ware recommendations lists alternatives to LinkChecker, where both the platform and the license can be selected.


More PDF-programs: “Category:Free PDF software” • “List of PDF soft­ware”.


9 Typesetting and Hyphenation

We write for the reader: Careful punctuation ensures that the writer's thoughts and concepts are clearly structured and easy to read, and that his information and messages are correctly reproduced.

Hyphenation lines create a harmonious text image in justification and ensure an effective reading flow. In the naturally developped written language rule, they ensure that the correct accents of the words to be separated are preserved as far as possible.

The naturally-grown supra-regional written German (Schriftdeutsch) is based on a set of rules that is always self-renewing, which was deliberately smashed to rob the language of its expressiveness, to deform and destroy it. Thereby among other things many thousands of words were directly destroyed, words, in which the separation and compound spelling have completely different meanings, although the conditions of language destruction will not last in the long run. Proven regulations that had previously reformed in a natural way were declared “outdated”, whereas the highly deformed written language, which was deprived of its expressiveness and thrown far back in its development, was and is praised as “new” and “modern”. The “renewed” rules and hyphenation rules, however, lead to countless errors and misunderstandings, make it difficult to read texts, despite the fact that the underlying, self-contradictory “rules” have been formally implemented correctly in computer programs (no programming errors). Thanks to free software, everyone is free to choose which hyphenation rules and dictionaries they use, free software emphasizes the freedom of the individual, the people and the nation. More information will be published in a separate article (until then a mini article with more general aspects). a mini article with more general aspects [currently only in German]).

Classical written German will continue to be written, and the language packages associated with LibreOffice and OpenOffice will also undergo ongoing maintenance, expansion and updating. Extract from the official description (11 March 2018), published on the “German (de-DE-1901) old spelling dictionaries” -project and -download page of the “LibreOffice Extensions & Templates”: “[...] This extension published by Karl Zeiler integrates dictionaries in accordance with the old rules of German spelling and hyphenation. Classical spelling rules are still valid but do no longer apply to government agencies and schools where the new ones are mandatory. This version - derived from new spelling frami and igerman98 dictionaries - has been modified by Rüdiger Brünner according to the classical spelling rules. Additionally, he enlarged the word list by many scientific technical terms. [...]”.

Under LyX, select “Document”→ “Settings...” and select “German (old spelling)”. in the “Language” section.

LaTeX/LyX: General information on “german / ngerman” (in German).

9.1 The Soft Hyphen

The word separation systems of modern word processing and typesetting systems are powerful and work as error-free as possible. However, it may happen that a typesetting system does not recognize a compound word as such or that a word protrudes beyond the edge, or that the author wishes for a different separation. For such cases you give clear guidelines.

Separation points can be set centrally in a separate reference word list or directly in the text. The soft hyphen explicitly tells the typesetting system where a word can be hyphenated. One possibility, for example, is to copy it for larger texts via Crtl + C to the clipboard and then paste it via Crtl + V into the syllable or word joints.

Read the WP-article “Soft hyphen”. It contains detailed information for operating systems as well as for word processing and typesetting systems, the table in the section "Representation on computer systems" contains an extensive list of key combinations for different programs.

9.2 Separation Points without Hyphens, protected Spaces and Words

Some text components, such as hyperlinks or directory paths, can extend over several lines. To ensure that the source information is correct, you must prevent (non-existent) hyphens from being inserted.

Use the Zero-width space to mark your word or text component with hyphens that remain free of hyphens during wrapping. The hyphenation can be disabled for parts of a word as well as for the whole word. Read the following articles to familiarize yourself with the different scenarios:

9.3 The Problem of Hyphenation in E-Books and HTML-Documents, and its partial Solution

Separation aids and optional predetermined breaking points increase reading comfort. However, an optional automatic hyphenation feature either does not exist in today's Web page readers and e-book readers, or it does not work satisfactorily.

Partly the problem can be solved, so that at least the wide gaps disappear.

Hyphenation Aids that cause a Hyphen:
  1. First write your text and then open it in HTML mode, using an editor such as Note­pad++
  2. Write the so-called soft hyphen for HTML (WP-article: “Soft hyphen” and copy it to the clipboard: &shy;
  3. Now copy this HTML-entity continuously from the clipboard into the corresponding syllable joints.

The web page reader program thus has enough syllable separation joints to avoid unattractive gaps. Certain hyphenation cases, such as the retransformation of the double consonant (from “ck” to “kk”) in German, cannot be handled with this, so that no simple hyphenation option is available: In “Zuk-ker”, the short “u” is retained, but “Zu-cker” leads to a long, incorrectly emphasized “u”.

Optional Text Breaking Points without Hyphen Triggering:

Some words urgently need to be separated, but must not be hyphenated as this would distort their content. Examples are e-mail addresses and hyperlinks where it would no longer be clear whether it is a hyphen or a part of the address itself.

Here, the space character of the length zero helps: &#x200b; (Zero Width Space). For URLs, it is best to insert it between each character of your word, if necessary.

While popular browsers take these separators into account correctly, some e-book readers and e-book software readers either ignore the hyphenation help completely, or they bypass the problem by left justify, or they use the soft hyphens separator, but do not display hyphens. Or worse, they display hyphens wherever hyphens are built in.

In general, at least a subset of the official Epub standard should be implemented bindingly on all e-book readers in order to guarantee a reliable text representation and a tidy reading comfort.



10 Free Image Editing Software and Vector Graphics Software

Images and graphics are handled in different formats. Raster images, such as photos, consist of many individual dots, each of which has a specific color. The dot structure becomes visible at high magnifications.

Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crystal_Project_package_graphics.png,
        Original Image source: http://everaldo.com/crystal/?action=downloads,
        License: http://everaldo.com/crystal/?action=license

Vector graphics consist of geometric objects, gradients and other components. They can be resized, i.e. the image is recalculated or redrawn when it is enlarged, so that there is no loss of quality (block graphics). Company logos are often created as vector graphics. Of course there are also limits: A vector graphic, which is to be applied on a house wall, is usually created separately. Vector graphics can be converted into pixel graphics / raster images. Apart from illustrations, technical applications (construction plans, circuit diagrams, diagrams, etc.) are the main field of application of vector programs.

The possible color depth of a program determines how finely shaded colors and color gradients can be displayed within an image, the higher the possible color depth, the better. Depending on the application, a high color depth can also be advantageous if the output is

only at a low color depth: When performing extensive image processing steps, fewer calculation errors (rounding errors, etc.) may occur if complex calculations have to be carried out.

Hyperlink on image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crystal_Project_colors.png,
       Original image source: http://everaldo.com/crystal/?action=downloads,
       License: http://everaldo.com/crystal/?action=license

Each device (monitor, printer, etc.) has its own color space. Imagine it as a color palette that defines which colors can be displayed and which cannot, and how the colors are displayed. Color spaces are standardized. A classic problem: You have an image with many color tones (large color palette), and want to output it on a device with only a limited color range (small color palette). The following questions arise: How should a color of the original image be displayed that cannot be displayed on the output device? Should the next similar color of the target color space be selected? Should a mixed color be selected? Or should the color simply be omitted completely? Another example: You want to convert a color photo into a black and white photo, in this case, grayscale tones must be assigned to the respective hues of the original image.

Software for the Raster Image Editing

For the of photos and graphics the powerful, cross-platform free painting and image editing programs Krita (krita.org) and GIMP are recommended. Both are suitable for the image preparation of professional prepress products as well as for the editing of graphics for the Internet and e-books.


Krita
JPEG-file, opened in Krita 2.9
(click for detailed view)



Software Overview:


Various Themes on Image Editing

The Internet offers numerous high-quality, step-by-step instructions on the huge subject of image editing. Think about which words or which word combinations could be contained in the information you are looking for and vary these search term combinations.

The WP-article “Comparison of raster graphics editors” contains a comprehensive overview on all free image editing programs (left column)



Vector Graphic Editors

General overview on vector graphics software: “Comparison of vector graphics editors”

Drawing Diagrams

DIA, official website • WP-article “Dia (soft­ware)” • Documentation • Google search: DIA software introduction, DIA software Tutorials; Google image search: Dia software diagrams; Google video search: DIA soft­ware Introduction, DIA software tutorials


3D Graphics

Blender is one of the most popular, widely used and powerful free 3D graphics and animation applications.

WP-article Blender (software) • Google search: Blender software, Blender introduction, Blender tutorials, Google image search: Blender software landscape; Google video search: Blender software landscape, Blender software introduction • Category:Free 3D graphics software


Various articles

WP-overview “Category: Free graphics software”, with subcategories.

Image editing and photography: “Category:​Photographic techniques”, “Category:​Pho­tog­ra­phy”, “Category:​Digital photography”

“Ca­te­go­ry:Free mul­ti­me­dia soft­ware”



11 The sovereign Use of the Keyboard, Language Acquisition

Use the opportunity to write with 10 fingers, learn the ten-finger system. This results in several advantages:

A big time saver, since you write down your thoughts in words blindly and directly, immediately, work on texts with highest efficiency and productiveness

No more distractions by unnecessary glances at the keyboard, continuous reading of telex dialogs on the screen, fast reaction times, calling of program functions by key combinations instead of time-consuming mouse clicks.

If necessary, you will also learn the original keyboard

layout and the ten-finger system for an additional language of your choice. Example: The keyboard layout(s) for French or the layout for German or the Russian PC keyboard(s) in Cyrillic. You can switch the keyboard layout in a flash by pressing a key combination or clicking the mouse. Newly learned words and phrases are written down several times in the ten-finger system of the original keyboard layout, in a word processing file, for the purpose of memorization. This also ensures immediate, fast written communication with language learning partners during direct written communication (telex dialogues, chatting).

11.1 Free Software for learning the Ten-Finger System, Teaching Articles

People of all professions write in the ten-finger system, for significant time savings and increased responsiveness, and for maximum concentration on content. Your attractiveness as a language learning partner is simply greater if you can answer your language tandem partner directly in writing in telex dialogues.

In the WP article “Touch typing”, various aspects are explained and in the German article ver­sion a com­pre-

hen­sive list of free software for the touch system and online help is referred to. Among the free programs, the free cross-platform writing trainer TIPP10 [English website version] (German WP-article) stands out. It offers a sophisticated, interactive and self-adaptive writing course.

In the Internet, countless information is available free of charge and directly. Examples: Google search for “touch system typing”, Google video search for “touch system”.

11.2 Language and Keyboard Layout

Acquire the ten-finger system not only for your mother tongue, but also for the other language you wish to acquire. There are usually several (country-specific) keyboard layout variants available for each language. The English Wikipedia article “Keyboard layout” offers a very comprehensive overview. The article itself is offered in different languages (menu on the left), other Versions may not be as comprehensive as the English original. The article contains numerous hyperlinks referring to national and country-specific Keyobard information; These subarticles can provide you with a lot of information, also in languages other than English. Always look (in each [sub] article, category, etc.) on the left for other language versions.

Modern operating systems support all common worldwide assignments. Switching is done either by mouse click or via a self-defined key combination (short­cut).

The following procedure is recommended for learning the keyboard layout of your target language:

Find the corresponding information in the WP-article “Keyboard layout” (or in one of its other language versions)

Example for German, French, and Russian: German: Jump to the section “QWERTZ”, from there follow the link “Main article: QWERTZ” (German article version: “QWERTZ-Tastaturbelegung”). The section “Austria and Germany” contains the hyperlink “Main article: German keyboard layout”. This article, “German keyboard layout”, provides comprehensive country-specific information (German article version “Tastaturbelegung”). Now click on the keyboard shown there, whereupon the WP page German keyboard layout "T1" according to DIN 2137-1:2012-06 appears. Press “More details” at the bottom right, which will take you to the File:KB Germany.svg. French: Go to the “AZERTY” section and select “Main article: AZERTY”. In this article (French version: “AZERTY”) you will find the relevant information. In the “French” section, click on the keyboard shown there, whereupon the WP page “AZERTY layout used in France” appears. Press “More details”, at the bottom right to go to the Wikimedia Commons page „File:KB France.svg“. Russian: In the Cyrillic section “6.4.2 Russian”, several keyboard layouts for Russian are shown. The separate article “JCUKEN” provides more information about the Russian standard keyboard layout.

Now click on the keyboard shown there, whereupon the WP page “ЙЦУКЕН key­board la­yout” appears. Press “More details” at the bottom right, which will take you to the Wikimedia Commons page „File:KB Russian.svg“.

There are now two ways to print the keyboard: You click on the original-SVG-​vector graphic file (German: “original file”, French: “Original file”, Russian: “Ori­gi­nal file”) and it opens in your web browser. Afterwards, go to the print preview in the browser menu: “Print” → “Print pre­view”. Now select “Landscape” for the orientation and then click on “Print”. Alternatively, you can also use a precalculated PNG-​file (different resolutions) for prin­ting. The table with the PNG versions is located under the respective SVG file.

As long as you have not yet mastered the keyboard layout of your target language, proceed as follows: 1. Print the keyboard. 2. Stick it on a firm cardboard base that you can cut or fold. 3. Attach the keyboard to your workplace so that it is always in your field of vision, or make a stand-up display.

To learn new (chapter episode) words, open a word processing file. Write down each new word to be learned in the ten-finger system, at least over several lines. Proceed word by word, paragraph by paragraph. Writing down entire texts is also useful for memorizing them.

Use the numerous instructions on the Internet to select the appropriate keyboard layout. For example, use the search query Russian keyboard or generally the search combination [target language] keyboard layout [operating system]. Keyboard layout graphics can also be found directly via the image search, for example via the Google image search for Russian keyboard, or for Russian keyboard layout.

Your language learning partner will be amazed if suddenly you can write just as fast or even faster than them. In the physical world, language is the key to the culture of peoples and to the hearts of your people. Read the comprehensive article on free, powerful online and offline dictionaries, language learning and translation projects: Freely accessible Language Resources: Dictionaries, Machine Translation, Language Courses.

Seriously striving to speak the national language of a local people involves a fundamental respect. The local people will be aware of this and, no matter how advanced your language skills are, you will be met with a correspondingly open-minded attitude.

11.3 Your National Keyboard Layout and the US-American PC-Keyboard-Layout, EFI and BIOS

Take a look at the English WP-​article “Keyboard layout”, whi­ch contains de­tailed information about your national key­board layout as well as hyperlinks to further articles about each individual keyboard character; WP-SVG graphics are also offered, e.g. on the the German PC-keyboard-layout. On the left side of the “Keyboard layout”-article, you can look up the language version that contains the relevant information for your national

keyboard version. Keyboard lay­out and EFI: In rare cases the EFI and possibly also the predecessor system BIOS or another program require an input with US-American keyboard mapping. Confirmations with “Y” (for “Yes”) and the reconstruction of already set system passwords can only be made if the US mapping is known. It is therefore essential that you file a printout of the US keyboard layout in your physical computer folder (WP-article on the US-keyboard layout, overview on the WP graphic file versions [various resolutions]).

11.4 Mechanical Keyboards

Frequent writers, authors and programmers prefer mechanical keyboards, for example the timeless, world famous Cherry G80-3000 LSCDE-2 (black version). There are worlds between PC foil circuit board keyboards and the right ones, the so-called mechanical keyboards, both in terms of writing comfort and touch precision, as well as in terms of consistent writing quality, robustness and durability of the keyboard.

Two articles about this keyboard class and its different types: “Benefits of a Mechanical Keyboard for Writers” • “Best Mechanical Keyboards For Typing – 2018 Edition”.



12 Notes on the Use of Machine Translation Systems, by the Example of DeepL

DeepL (deepl.com) represents a quantum leap in machine translation. Test the functions and fine functions, write individual sentences, copy text blocks and complete texts or upload documents to be translated and examine the results. Click on individual words in the translation text. Depending on the text, alternative formulations are also listed outside the windows.

Changes in the source text or in the translation text dynamically lead to (partial) new translations, the system continuously and directly takes into account changes and extensions made by the user. This also applies to the correction of any translation errors that may occur: If you start to reformulate something (partially) in the translated text, DeepL immediately dis­plays suggestions for sentence changes or re­for­mu­la­tions when you write the first word, including the actually correct translation if this has not been selected by the system or if the source text has not been formulated clearly enough. The system is extremely user-friendly, even with regard to incorrect input, such as typos or omitted words.

For its translations, DeepL accesses the huge data treas­ure of the context-sensitive dictionary Linguee, which it has acquired since 2007. The following lan­guages are currently supported for translation: German, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, Po­lish, Russian. The lan­guage of the user interface fol­lows your browser's identification, but it can also be set explicitly in the menu at the bottom left.

Machine translations can never be taken over unchecked by computers, since more complex texts may have room for manoeuvre and more subtle interpretations. However, the machine translation standard that has now been achieved is shocking. Since the translations proposed for factual texts are absolutely ready for printing, it is no longer possible to speak of raw translations. Paragraph by paragraph, polished diamonds are supplied, absolutely natural-language texts; from time to time there are rough diamonds among them, which require minimal post-processing. This system is also excellent for checking the fluency of formulations, partially verifying the grammatical correctness of individual phrases, sen­tences and sentence constructions, fine-tuning and displaying trans­la­tion alternatives.

Inform yourself: WP-​article „DeepL Translator“, DeepL Blog, „Über­set­ze Do­ku­men­te mit DeepL“.

Modern translation systems such as DeepL work context-based, analysing the contextual frame of reference to select the right terms and phrases. Once they have identified the subject area or sub-discipline in which the text is to be located, they can precisely encircle, compile and arrange the required translation elements, drawing on huge databases of subject-vocabulary-specific (man-made) translations, whereby the jargon-specific phrases, idioms and formulations of the target language are accurately selected and assigned.





If an entire, complete document is loaded for translation, as much reference frame information as possible is transferred. If individual sentences or paragraphs are entered for translation, the user must, depending on the case, add additional information for reference frame recognition, or subsequently make corrections himself, either by overwriting (partially) the translation result, rewriting or supplementing it, or by clicking on individual words in the translation to select alternative proposals. In both cases, the rest of the text may be dynamically retranslated by the system, or new suggestions may be presented in windows that appear.

Translations can also be saved as text files.

Example: We are in the field of mathematics and our title or section title to be translated is: “Ein­füh­rung in den in­di­rek­ten Be­weis”.

If we leave it at this single sentence, the system has too few points of reference or orientation to be able to determine in which subject area or in which sub-discipline the text is to be located, so that a more general frame of reference may be chosen which results in a translation that is not appropriate.


text

Translation of a document title without further frame of reference information.


By clicking on a translated word, alternative suggestions appear:



If we write the discipline, mathematics, before the individual sentence, the correct translation appears from the outset:


text

By explicitly naming the subject area, department or (sub)discipline, it is possible to provide support for sentences with little reference frame information.


However, it probably requires only in the fewest cases of such extra references, the contentwise paragraph in­for­ma­tion delivers mostly already sufficient in­for­ma­tion.

When translating, it is recommended that you keep a second tab window of the translation system open so that you can enter individual sentences or formulations sepa­rate­ly if required.

Recommendation:

Repeated note: If the appropriate translation is not dis­played, it is usually already available as an alternative in the selection menu. Click with the mouse pointer on any emp­ty space in the text, at the beginning of the sentence or in the middle, or click on any words to display al­ter­na­tive sentence introductions, (partial) formulations and word al­ter­na­tives.

Until now, many people could not produce print-ready trans­la­tions without prior checking by native English speak­ers if the text was too large or complex. And still po­et­ry (classical literary English, French, etc.) is a separate field.

For factual texts, however, a completely new starting point is given: Highly complex texts can now be translated into the respective target language ready for printing, even without a native speaker of the target language. Even though many people may not be able to do this without the machine help of DeepL, they can still reliably recognize whether a text is in natural English and whether or where a machine translation needs to be corrected. Years of consuming English texts enable them to do this, and any corrections that may be necessary can usually be done alone, if necessary by evaluating search engine statistics.












Copyright 2008–2019 by Peter Jockisch, webmaster@peterjockisch.de

All listed brand names, trademarks and work titles are the property of their respective owners.
For this translated article version DeepL (DeepL.com) was used extensively.

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